26 June 2011

List of Software (Video Editor)

25 June 2011

Computer Ethics (Definition)

Computer ethics is a system of moral standards or moral values used as guideline for computer user.

A few definition by others writer ;

Maner’s Definition
The name “computer ethics” was not commonly used until the mid-1970s when Walter Maner began to use it. He defined this field of study as one that examines “ethical problems aggravated, transformed or created by computer technology.” Some old ethical problems, he said, were made worse by computers, while others came into existence because of computer technology. He suggested that we should use traditional ethical theories of philosophers, such as the utilitarian ethics of the English philosophers Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, or the rationalist ethics of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant.

Johnson’s Definition
In her book, Computer Ethics (1985), Deborah Johnson said that computer ethics studies the way in which computers “pose new versions of standard moral problems and moral dilemmas, exacerbating the old problems, and forcing us to apply ordinary moral norms in uncharted realms.” Like Maner before her, Johnson adopted the “applied philosophy” approach of using procedures and concepts from utilitarianism and Kantianism. But, unlike Maner, she did not believe that computers create wholly new moral problems. Rather, she thought that computers gave a “new twist” to ethical questions that were already well known.

Moor’s Definition
In his influential article “What Is Computer Ethics?” (1985), James Moor provided a definition of computer ethics that is much broader and more wide-ranging than those of Maner or Johnson. It is independent of any specific philosopher’s theory; and it is compatible with a wide variety of approaches to ethical problem-solving. Since 1985, Moor’s definition has been the most influential one. He defined computer ethics as a field concerned with “policy vacuums” and “conceptual muddles” regarding the social and ethical use of  information technology: A typical problem in Computer Ethics arises because there is a policy vacuum about how computer technology should be used. Computers provide us with new capabilities and these in turn give us new choices for action. Often, either no policies for conduct in these situations exist or existing policies seem inadequate. A central task of Computer Ethics is to determine what we should do in such cases, that is, formulate policies to guide our actions. . . .
One difficulty is that along with a policy vacuum there is often a conceptual vacuum. Although a problem in Computer Ethics may seem clear initially, a little reflection reveals a conceptual muddle. What is needed in such cases is an analysis that provides a coherent conceptual framework within which to formulate a policy for action. (Moor 1985, p. 266)
Moor said that computer technology is genuinely revolutionary because it is “logically malleable”: Computers are logically malleable in that they can be shaped and molded to do any activity that can be characterized in terms of inputs, outputs and connecting logical operations. . . . Because logic applies everywhere, the potential applications of computer technology appear limitless. The computer is the nearest thing we have to a universal tool. Indeed, the limits of computers are largely the limits of our own creativity. (Ibid.) According to Moor, the computer revolution will occur in two stages. The first stage is that of “technological introduction” in which computer technology is developed and refined. This already occurred during the first 40 years after the Second World War. The second stage – one that the industrialized world has only recently entered – is that of “technological permeation” in which technology gets integrated into everyday human activities and into social institutions, changing the very meaning of fundamental concepts, such as “money,” “education,” “work,” and “fair elections.” Moor’s way of defining computer ethics is very powerful and suggestive. It is broad enough to be compatible with a wide range of philosophical theories and methodologies, and it is rooted in a perceptive understanding of how technological revolutions proceed.

Bynum’s Definition
In 1989 Terrell Ward Bynum developed another broad definition of computer ethics following a suggestion in Moor’s 1985 paper. According to this view, computer ethics identifies and analyzes the impacts of information technology on such social and human values as health, wealth, work, opportunity, freedom, democracy, knowledge, privacy, security, self-fulfillment, etc. This very broad view of computer ethics employs applied ethics, sociology of computing, technology assessment, computer law, and related fields. It employs concepts, theories, and methodologies from these and other relevant disciplines. This conception of computer ethics is motivated by the belief that – eventually – information technology will profoundly affect everything that human beings hold dear.

Gotterbarn’s Definition
In the 1990s, Donald Gotterbarn became a strong advocate for a different approach to computer ethics. From his perspective, computer ethics should be viewed as a branch of professional ethics, concerned primarily with standards of good practice and codes of conduct for computing professionals: There is little attention paid to the domain of professional ethics – the values that guide the day-to-day activities of computing professionals in their role as professionals. By computing professional I mean anyone involved in the design and development of computer artifacts. . . . The ethical decisions made during the development of these artifacts have a direct relationship to many of the issues discussed under the broader concept of computer ethics. (Gotterbarn 1991, p. 26)
With this “professional ethics” approach to computer ethics, Gotterbarn co-authored the 1992 version of the ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct and led a team of scholars in the development of the 1999 ACM/IEEE Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional Practice. (Both of these codes of ethics are included in this book in Part III.) Each of these definitions of computer ethics has influenced this textbook to some extent. Part I makes special use of the ideas of Moor and Maner; later parts of the book bring in other ideas as well.

Albert Einstein said "It is not enough that you should understand about applied science in order that your work may increase man’s blessings. Concern for man himself and his fate must always form the chief interest of all technical endeavors."

Original text at : http://www.blackwellpublishing.com

21 June 2011

Example of Pervasive Computing

How to write an example of pervasive computing :

ASUS Eee Pad 101TC

The Eee Pad 101TC is in some respects a whole different kettle of fish to its bigger brother. It's not just the 10 inches of glass that follows in the iPad's footsteps, but also the metal sleeve around the edge now. Either way, this has become an aesthetically acceptable style and the textured backside also looks good and adds grip, however in the early sample on show the quality of manufacture still needs some tweaking around the edges.
Avalible on : 31 May 2011


Other links that lead to example of perversive computing
1. The Japanese Wrist Mounted Finger Piano
2. Auto Pilot Emotional ConnectionsThrough AI

20 June 2011

Open source software, hardware & software.

Open source software is computer software that is available in source code form, the source code and certain other rights normally reserved for copyright holders are provided under a software license that permits users to study, change, improve and at times also to distribute the software. Some open source software is available within the public domain. Open source software is very often developed in a public, collaborative manner. Open-source software is the most prominent example of open-source development and often compared to user-generated content or open content movements.

Hardware is a general term for the physical artifacts of a technology. It mean the physical  devices or physical components of a computer system, in the form of computer hardware. Hardware of a modern personal computer are monitor, motherboard, CPU, RAM, expansion cards, power supply, optical disc drive, hard disk drive, keyboard and mouse.

Software is a collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions telling a computer what to do and how to do it. We can also say software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some purposes. In other words software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation. Program software performs the function program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software. Software is intangible, meaning it "cannot be touched". Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only.

 References :

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open-source_software
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_software
3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hardware
4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_computer_hardware

18 June 2011


1. Pupils are prohibited to enter the lab unless authorised by the teacher.
2. Scan pen drive before using them.
3. Report all problems related to the system to the teacher.
4. Do not attempt to repair or tamper with lab equipment.
5. Be responsible when using equipment, software and facilities in the lab.
6. Do not move any equipment from its original position.
7. Do not remove or load any software into the computer.
8. Do not change the settings in the computer.
9. Save all work in external storage device and not in the computer.
10. Do not bring in bags, food and drinks into the lab.
11. Turn off the computer accordingly after use.
12. Switch off all power suplies before leaving the lab.
13. Internet facility is strictly for educational purpose only.
14. Teachers shoul record the use of computer lab in the lab log book.
15. All user should record the use of computers in the the computer log book.
16. The Lab should be kept clean and tidy at all times.

Coment :
This Computer Lab Rules and Regulation is post as a guide line for student when they enter the computer's lab. This post is under educational proposes only. With this post, I hope that student can read and obey the  Rules and Regulations state above. Thank you.

15 June 2011

Computer Component & Hardware

Gambar perkakasan komputer yang di ambil dari dalam Makmal komputer SMKPC2. Ini sebagai pengetahuan kepada generasi baru tentang beberapa perkakasan komputer yang sudah tiada dalam pasaran sekarang disamping kegunaan pelajar-pelajar yang mengambil ICT dalam mengenal perkasasan komputer.
Bolehkah anda membuat pengkelasan perkakasan-perkakasan tersebut ?

14 June 2011

Tarikh : 13 & 14 Jun 2011
Hari : Isnin & Selasa
Masa : 8.00 pagi hingga 5.00 petang
Tempat : SMK Kutan

Status : Hadir / AJK Statistik

12 June 2011

MS Windows Operating System

Slide ini memaparkan beberapa sistem operasi Microsoft Windows yang dikeluarkan oleh Microsoft. Bermula pada awal 90an Microsoft telah melalui zaman perubahan dalam pengeluaran sistem operasi untuk komputer. Antara sistem operasi yang mashur ialah Microsoft Windows 95 yang dilancarkan pada 24 Ogos 1995. Ianya adalah sistem operasi yang pertama yang dikeluarkan oleh Microsoft yang menggunakan sepenuhnya antaramuka grafik. Penghasilan sistem operasi ini diteruskan lagi kerana persaingan perniagaan dengan Apple. Windows 95 ditingkatkan dengan dipasarkan Windows 95 A, B dan C.

Perlumbaan dalam sistem ini juga telah mengalakan Microsoft dengan mengeluarkan Microsoft Windows 98. WIndows 98 ini juga ditingkatkan dengan adanya Windows 98 Second Edition.
Pengkajian dalam memuaskan hati pelanggan telah merangsang Microsoft sebagai syarikat pengeluar sistem operasi komputer mempromosikan tahun 2000 dengan mengeluarkan Windows 2000 dan juga Windows Melenium (Windows Me). Disebabkan masalah dalam pengoperasian Windows ME, Microsoft mengeluarkan pula Windows XP pada Oktober 2001.

Windows XP merupakan antara sistem operasi yang amat berjaya oleh Microsoft. Windows XP juga mempunyai beberapa siri seperti Servis Pack 1, Servis Pack 2 dan Servis Pack 3. Pada 30 Januari 2007 Microsoft melancarkan pula sistem operasi yang baru iaitu Windows Vista. Vista dikeluarka dalam 4 pakej dengan harga yang berlainan. Microsoft mendapat kritikan yang amat teruk atas pengeluaran Windows Vista.

Sistem operasi yang terbaru dikeluarkan oleh Microsoft ialah Windows 7 yang dilancarkan pada 22 Julai 2009. Windows 7 juga antara sistem operasi yang stabil yang dikeluarkan oleh Microsoft. Mengikut maklumat semasa melancarkan Windows 7 ini satu sistem operasi akan dikeluarkan selepas 2 tahun iaitu Windows 8.

Selain dari mengeluarkan sistem operasi untuk komputer, Microsoft juga mengeluarkan sistem operasi untuk komputer server dan juga sistem operasi untuk aksesori lain seperti PDA dan telefon tangan.

Pautan untuk penerangan setiap sistem operasi :

Sistem operasi komputer
Windows 3.0
Windows 3.1x
Windows 95
Windows 98
Windows ME
Windows XP
Windows Vista
Windows 7

Sistem operasi komputer server
Windows NT
Windows 2000
Windows Server 2003
Windows Home Server
Windows Server 2008

Sistem operasi mobile
Windows CE
Windows Phone 7
Windows Mobile

04 June 2011

Device Driver

In computing, a device driver or software driver is a computer program allowing higher-level computer programs to interact with a hardware device. A driver typically communicates with the device through the computer bus or communications subsystem to which the hardware connects. When a calling program invokes a routine in the driver, the driver issues commands to the device. Once the device sends data back to the driver, the driver may invoke routines in the original calling program. Drivers are hardware-dependent and operating-system-specific. They usually provide the interrupt handling required for any necessary asynchronous time-dependent hardware interface.

Taken from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_driver


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